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Categoria: ►Artes, Musicos

San Isidro de  Sevilla decía:  "música es hija de la memoria, porque los sonidos no se pueden escribir".

Durante la Edad Media los cantores de las catedrales y monasterios empleaban  varios años de su vida en aprender de memoria todas las melodías gregorianas del Oficio Divino. Cuando un cantor se equivocaba en el coro, era severamente castigado. 

 

Guido de Arezzo fue un monje italiano del siglo X (990 - 1050) que siendo niño cantor había sufrido este pesado aprendizaje.
Por eso ideó un modo de facilitar las cosas hasta el punto de que cualquiera en muy poco tiempo pudiera cantar cualquier melodía.
Para ello trazaba sobre papel cuatro líneas horizontales de diferentes colores - tetragrama y situaba las notas sobre las líneas o los espacios intermedios.
Así la vista distinguía perfectamente unas notas de las demás.

Pero además quiso poner un nombre a cada nota, para que bastase recordar el nombre e inmediatamente se pudiera cantar el sonido.

En la Edad Media, las notas se denominaban por medio de las primeras letras del alfabeto: A, B, C, D, E, F, G (comenzando por la actual nota La).

Guido D´Arezzo

Entonces se fijó en que un famoso himno  dedicado a San Juan Bautista, que  solía cantarse  en aquella época,  conocido como Ut queant laxis— atribuido a Pablo el Diácono, que tenía la particularidad de que cada frase musical empezaba con una nota superior a la que antecedía.
Pentagrama musical

El himno era:

UTqueant laxis
REsonare fibris
MIra gestorum
FAmuli tuorum
SOLve polluti
LAbii reatum
Sancte Ioannes
(“Para que tus siervos puedan cantar bien alto, las maravillas de tu vida, borra la pena que asoma en sus labios San Juan”)

En este himno tiene su origen el nombre de las notas. Guido tuvo la idea de emplear la primera sílaba de cada frase para identificar las notas que se entonaban con cada una de ellas.

La nota SI no tenía una altura fija, por lo que en ocasiones recibía el nombre de “be mollis” (de ahí viene la palabra bemol) y en otras ocasione recibe el nombre de “be cuadratum” (de ahí viene el becuadro).

Guido de Arezzo denominó a este sistema de entonación solmisación (en latín, solmisatio), y más tarde se le denominó solfeo.

Posteriormente se incorpora la nota SI en el S. XVI, tomando para su nombre las iniciales de San Juan (Sancte Ioannes).
Más tarde siglo XVII, Giovanni Battista Doni se dio cuenta de que la primera silaba era un poco incomoda de pronunciar y la cambió por la silaba DO, que se adaptaba mejor al canto y es la que conocemos.

Pero no se agotó ahí el ingenio de Guido.
Como los libros eran muy escasos en aquella época, usó sus propias manos  como instrumento de enseñanza.

Coloco una nota sobre cada falange de los dedos: con este método al que llamó mano guidoniana, daba clase  de solfeo a sus alumnos con resultados sorprendentes.

El éxito de su sistema pedagógico hizo que el papa Juan XIX le invitase a ir a Roma a exponerlo. Pero  la mejor comprobación de la validez de su método es que en la actualidad se mantiene vigente
.
Mano Guidoniana



 



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Ana Pets
# Ana Pets
domingo, 16 de enero de 2011 21:44
Me lío con la mano x3
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